Science deals with quantitative measurement, but human consciousness is messy— it deals with subjective qualities and values. We humans are all conscious, but we each have subjective (internal) experiences and can embrace entirely different values and choices. This influences the ordering of our individual psyches.
Let me throw another “wrinkle” into this scientific challenge.
Values can represent non-physical measurement. That is, they represent the measurements and parameters of our personal and core belief-systems. Science does not deny that these belief-systems and worldviews exist within the human intellect but they simply cannot measure them with a ruler or yardstick. For instance, some people value money more than others, so money has a “larger” influence and importance in their lives—yet a dollar bill has the same physical size to all people. Personal human experience and preference lies outside the realm of the natural sciences and ocular assessment.
However, these values end up as real activity in the physical brain. That means that the non-physical activity (phenomenology) of the human heart and mind has correlation to actual organic forms and structures in the brain. Science calls this the “hard problem” in brain function, consciousness and first-person experience.
This area of investigation will represent the science of the future. However, the only man in human history who claimed to have the knowledge and ability to submit the ideas and concepts of human cognition to mathematical calculation is scientist/theologian Emanuel Swedenborg. He theorized that all thought and emotion takes on real forms and ratios in the cortical structures of the human brain. Brain activity operates by adopting modes, forms and forces that are mathematically harmonious to non-material values. He also put forth the hypothesis that the human brain cell (neuron) consists of several distinct neural substrates (levels) that operate under different geometric principles that could form analogs of each other, by which the immaterial mind (and spirit) could operate in a material brain.
Studying Swedenborg’s writings will be the future of both scientific and religious discovery.